Earth is so far the only planet known to humanity that supports life. The existence and diversity of life makes our planet unique and our lives possible. Humans satisfy their essential needs and get several benefits from the existence of other forms of life on our planet, either directly or indirectly. In this article we will address the importance of biodiversity as well as the complexity and uncertainty linked to its disturbance. Biodiversity loss threatens our very existence, thus requiring global protection in order to guarantee the services for future generations. We argue that current global governance regarding biodiversity conservation is failing to provide sufficient protection, and that the future post-2015 agenda with the upcoming Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) constitutes an opportunity to improve the conservation of biodiversity for the well-being of present and future generations.